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Vertigo



/ˈvɜː(ɹ)tɨɡoʊ/ (from the Latin vertō "a whirling or spinning movement"[1]) is a subtype of dizziness, where there is a feeling of motion when one is stationary.[2] The symptoms are due to an asymmetric dysfunction of the vestibular system in the inner ear.[2] It is often associated with nausea and vomiting as well as a balance disorder, causing difficulties standing or walking. There are three types of vertigo: (1) Objective[3]− the patient has the sensation that objects in the environment are moving; (2) Subjective[3]− patient feels as if he or she is moving; (3)Pseudovertigo[4]− intensive sensation of rotation inside the patient's head. While appearing in textbooks, this classification has little to do with pathophysiology or treatment. Dizziness and vertigo rank among the most common complaints in medicine, affecting approximately 20%-30% of the general population.[5] Vertigo may be present in patients of all ages. However, it is rarely a primary concern amongst children, and becomes more prevalent with increasing age.[5] The most common causes are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, concussion and vestibular migraine while less common causes include Ménière's disease and vestibular neuritis.[2] Excessive consumption of ethanol (alcoholic beverages) can also cause notorious symptoms of vertigo. (For more information see Short term effects of alcohol). Repetitive spinning, as in familiar childhood games, can induce short-lived vertigo by disrupting the inertia of the fluid in the vestibular system.